The Corporate Plan published by the new agency, Social Security Scotland, is brimming with good intentions. Under the agency’s name is the motto: dignity, fairness and respect. The key to this rests in how the agency deals with mistakes, and there will be mistakes: introducing complex systems for people with complex problems to resolve makes that inevitable. There are some good signs: a commitment to resolving issues “resolved quickly and at the point of contact”, listening, and ‘continuous improvement’, using feedback to improve the quality of services. The problem, however, rests in a bitter legacy of conflictual, adversarial approaches to managing agency mistakes. Several elements of the new system create hurdles to overcome: mandatory ‘re-determination’ (the decision should have been checked anyway on first complaint), referral out to the Scottish Public Services Ombudsman (another hurdle), and heavy reliance on the appeals structure. This may all work work against speedy and effective resolution.