The problem of obesity is seen largely as a problem of nutrition and exercise. (There may be other contributory causes, such as sleep deprivation or the controlled temperature in heating systems, but this is still a reasonable generalisation.) Whenever exercise is mentioned, however, it is likely to be transmuted into “sport” in general, and competitive sports in particular. In several cases, absurdly, this has even been cited in support of Britain’s Olympic aspirations, as if sitting watching the Olympics with a pack of lager cans was going to inspire our transformation into leaner, fitter citizens. The sports lobby has kidnapped the idea of exercise, which is being held prisoner in a suburban room somewhere while an impostor takes its place. “Sport” is not the same thing as “exercise”, and even if sports are a way of exercising, they are not usually the best way.
An active lifestyle should mean that people are active across a wide range of ages, personal and social circumstances. Most people who have active lives do so through a variety of physical activities. The Scottish Health Survey classifies exercise for children in four categories – sport and exercise, walking, active play, and gardening and housework. Exercise for adults is mainly classified as home activity (including gardening, housework and DIY), work activity, and sport and exercise. In relation to all categories, “sports and exercise” is at best a contributory factor – not the main one.
Within the category of “sport and exercise”, the role of “sport” itself is limited. Exercise includes walking and non-sporting activity such as dancing. “Sport” is fairly generally defined, including e.,g. swimming and jogging. Competitive sport and games are a residual part of exercise within the category of “sport”, and a tiny part of exercise overall. Engagement in sport is highest among young males; it is much less important for females, and it declines rapidly in importance with age, Team games are largely beside the point. If we want a fit, active lifestyle, encouraging walking and gardening are much more relevant than getting people to play football or rugby. Whether or not schools need a football pitch, they do need a garden more.
If it were just a question of not recognising what most exercise is like, there would be a case for doing sport as well as exercise. But that’s not the only issue. The culture of sport in schools, and particularly of team games, is profoundly alienating. Most schools in Scotland suffer from the dominance of football in the playground, where a few more competent boys participate, and the rest of the children are relegated to the corners of the open space. The obsession with competitive games leads to people avoiding physical activity. Sport, then, is part of the problem rather than part of the solution.